Full range neck flexion is somewhere between 82 and 90 degrees for males. Females in general have less range of motion in flexion then their counterpart. When training full range flexion start the exercise in a neutral position with the head slightly retracted. Beginning the exercise from neutral in retraction elicits about 10% more neural activity hence recruiting the most neck muscular. You need a great 'start' to Get Strong.
The Naval Academy installs six Pendulum 5 Way Neck Machines to train it's midshipmen.
Getting Strong in Annapolis, Maryland.
The storied Pingry School in Basking Ridge, New Jersey has been in operation since 1861. Doug Scott has been a member of the Pingry faculty since 1999 and has served as a Physical Education teacher and Strength and Conditioning coach since that time. Coach Scott runs a comprehensive program designed to get the most out of each participant. Doug describes a successful technique that he uses to strengthen and protect his student athletes.
Teaching strength training to athletes is important for many reasons. The most important being developing a high level of muscular fitness is the best form of preventive medicine from athletic injuries. In the case of developing the muscles of the head, neck, and upper back it is important that every measure be taken to insure maximum stimulation of the musculature. Holding an exercise in the muscles contracted position does just that. A technique that has proven to be very successful is to have the athlete hold each exercise in the contracted position for a designated amount of time before returning back to the starting position. Here is a progressive system where the athlete tracks not only the weight and repetitions performed but also the hold in the contracted position. Every two weeks adjust all three variables to ensure overload.
Holding a neck extension in the contracted position on the Pendulum 4 - Way
Week 1 – 2
Neck 4 ways (8 second hold in contracted position) 5-7 reps
Week 2-4 * increase weight 5-10 lbs
Neck 4 ways (6 second hold in contracted position) 7-9 reps
Week 4-6 * increase weight 5-10 lbs
Neck 4 ways (4 second hold in contracted position) 8-10 reps
Week 6-8 * increase weight 5-10 lbs
Neck 4 ways (2 second hold in contracted position) 10-12 reps
Week 8-10 * reduce weight to 10 lbs over starting weight and start system over
Pendulum neck flexion hold to Get Strong
To maximize trap development the lifter should incorporate a movement for the upper, middle and lower traps in their workout. The upper trap requires fixation of the hands when using a neck machine to target the appropriate musculature. The upper trap can also be isolated by performing a one arm movement. When doing so, it is necessary to also grasp an object with the contralateral limb to stabilize the spine.
Standing shrugs, seated shrugs, and high pulls develop the middle trapezius. Remember; with two hands on a barbell, machine, or with a pair of dumbbells no matter how high you raise your shoulders you are still capable of extending your head. Therefore, the upper trapezius, a strong extensor, is only involved minimally and the exercise cannot to be considered an upper trap movement.
The third movement necessary to fully train the trapezius is a lower trap movement. Lean forward on the 3-way row with your palms up and squeeze your shoulder blades together holding each rep for a five count at the top of the repetition.
A simple trapezius program:
1). Seated Pendulum neck extensions.... 8-10 repetitions
2). Seated Pendulum two arm shrugs..... 8-10 repetitions
3). One arm Pendulum shrugs................8-10 repetitions
4). Underhand scapula retraction............6-8 repetitions wit a 5 second hold
5). Pendulum 3-Way Rows underhand......8-10 repetitions
Get the traps Strong.
Ohio State University the 2014 NCAA Football National Champions
Pendulum Head and Neck Machines
Kinesthetics is our ability to feel the sensations of our movements and the awareness of where our body is in space. Having a kinesthetic sense of one's body parts relative to a previous position enables athletes to develop and nurture their athletic proficiency.
This awareness that we have and call 'skill' allows us to perform each movement with earned excellence. Kinesthetics is manifested in the examples of when the 'center' on a football team shotgun snaps a ball accurately to the quarterback, while keeping his eyes rivited on his opponent or the kicker kicks an extra point and knows exactly where to place his plant foot while moving, even though he is concentrating on the football as he is about to punch it through the uprights. Executing a skill correctly over and over allows an athlete to use precise sensory feedback to adjust as they move, integrating information from the ears, eyes, muscles, ligaments, skin and more - kinesthetic awareness.
Agility shuttles are used by coaches and scouts to evaluate players. Strength and Conditioning coaches hence instruct athletes with the appropriate form and have them practice it diligently to minimize their time. The following is an example of some instructions on the 'Pro Agility Shuttle' and viewed as good advice:
"Put your right hand down to the ground and get ready to take off." "Take three steps within five yards and pivot your right foot around so that it is in front of your left foot. Make sure your right hand is on the ground near your right foot." "Burst out 10 yards and mimic the same pivot and position with your left foot."
Yet, often instructors training athletes for a drill such as the 'Pro Agility Shuttle' may forget the most important coaching fundamental of running a great time, 'where the head goes the body will follow.' Touching a line on the ground as you change direction is not a complicated task as the line is not going to move. The athlete need not stare at the line to make sure he touches it, he need only to know where it is and be in tune with his running form.
The athlete need not watch the line
Getting as low as possible and using peripheral vision and body awareness for hand placement is what is necessary as the athlete must pivot the head and foot to burst in the opposite direction. Looking at the line and making sure it is touched prevents the athlete from quickly getting his head turned downfield. The craniums appropriate position brings the entire system into the actions needed to propel the body in the opposite direction.
By being aware of the line not watching it allows the athlete to turn quicker
If an athlete steps correctly, gets low as he approaches the line, trust he knows where he is in space and concentrates on bringing 'the head around so the body will follow', he will run up to his capabilities.
Teach athletes to rely on their kinesthetic awareness so they perform movements at the highest level.
The Journal, Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, covers clinical and experimental research pertinent to human physiology in health and disease and reviews recent 'front-line studies'.
Not long ago researchers looked at neck/shoulder muscle pain in a group of about two hundred adults that had lingering issues for at least 6 months to a year. The participants in the study were given small amounts of daily exercise with elastic tubing. After 10 weeks they were reexamined to see if there was a change of rapid force development, the results were then compared to a control group who did not exercise. Rapid force development, that is the force that can be generated in the early phase of muscle contraction (0–200 ms), significantly improved in the training group even though their strength did not. The study concluded that, "Small daily amounts of progressive resistance training in adults with frequent neck/shoulder pain increases rapid force development and, to a less extent, maximal force capacity."
Rate of force development is highly important as it allows an individual to reach a high level of muscle force in the early phase of a muscle contraction. If a fast limb movement is required ones rapid force development may allow a higher maximal muscle force to be reached that may otherwise not occur.
What is important to see is that even brief resistance exercise can have an effect on the development of rapid strength. Though researchers were looking at means of reducing pain in their population having a solid strength program for the head and neck as opposed to nominal exercise for the head, neck and shoulder area will go a long way in reducing subconcussive forces to protect the student athlete.
Pendulum 4-Way Neck Machines, Upper Arlington High School, Columbus, Ohio
Neck muscle fatigue produces abnormal sensory input to the central nervous system and affects our postural control, we use our vision to overcome these effects. Dynamic visual acuity is the clearness of the visual perception of an image, when our ocular system is impaired visual acuity degrades during head movements.
Training on the Pendulum 5 Way Head and Neck Machine
In the January Journal of Physical Therapy Science, researchers found that neck muscle fatigue negatively impacts dynamic visual acuity. The cervical spine is the hotbed of proprioception and when measured by joint position error, acuity is seen to diminish after fatigue.
Experiments in studying neck muscle fatigue, not only produce significantly altered effects of balance, but perceived altered affects, as well. In the May 2014 Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, scientists discovered fatigue is more than a general convention and that particular neck muscle groups have varying effects on stability.
Since neck muscle fatigue has been shown to alter an individual's balance in a similar way to subjects who suffer from neck pain or people that have suffered a neck injury, it is essential that an athlete trains the entire system, which includes the muscles of the head neck and jaw. Coaches must make it clear to the athlete that neck muscle strength affects performance and athletic trainers must be cognizant that returning muscle strength to normal values post injury is not only an important part of the rehabilitative process, but is imperative.
To perform optimally during athletics Get the entire system Strong.
MacKenzie Cutter is a Strength and Conditioning Coach at Miami of Ohio University, she runs a comprehensive strength and conditioning program for each of the University's teams that she is responsible for. The Miami University Synchronized Skating team has been our Nations best, they have won National Collegiate Championships in 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014. Neck training is a part of their program.
In the 1970s, colleges began introducing strength training into their athletic programs to enhance performance, as well as reduce injuries. Women, in general had a strong fear of becoming too muscular. Educators worked to dispel those fears and strength and conditioning programs are now commonplace throughout athletics. Yet wrongly conceived beliefs still linger today when it comes to training the muscles associated with the cervical spine. Neck training for the female, which increases the stiffness of the musculature rather than the size, is important not only to protect each athlete by reducing sub-concusive forces but perfect their balance and skill.
As great as these Miami synchronized skaters are, falls and collisions occur, protecting each athlete is paramount.
Mike Gittleson was the Director of Strength & Conditioning at the University of Michigan for 30 years and was a part of 15 Football Championships in that time. He explains, there are methods for lowering the risk and reducing the number of sport-related concussions across America.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) – which is used interchangeably with the term concussion – as a complex pathophysiologic process affecting the brain, induced by traumatic biomechanical forces secondary to direct or indirect forces to the head. A concussion or MTBI can be caused by a blow or a jolt to the head or body that disrupts the function of the brain.
There are methods for lowering the risk and reducing the number of sport-related concussions across America. Some of the factors are return to play, rules changes, the number of exposures, skill development, protective equipment and strength training to lower subconcussive forces. All of these considerations play a part in abatement of concussion. Exclusion of any one item affects the safety of the student-athlete. Each factor must be reviewed by the professional who, by using assiduity and diligence, can and will have a positive impact on risk.
Preventative sports medicine is the hallmark of any strength and conditioning program. The first goal of a professional is to develop effective and practical ways to reduce the number of sports-related injuries.
In the 1970s, collegiate programs began introducing strength training into their athletic programs to enhance performance as well as reduce injuries. There was very little research on the subject of weight training and athletics and many misnomers about strength training in general. At the time, the majority felt strongly that the use of barbells and strength training devices would inhibit athleticism by bulking and stiffening the athlete. Women, in general, had a strong fear of becoming too muscular. Educators worked to dispel those fears and strength and conditioning programs are now commonplace throughout athletics. Though some wrongly conceived beliefs still linger today when it comes to training the musculature associated with the cervical spine.
The benefits of muscular development are far greater than initially purported since the inception of strength training into intercollegiate athletics. One of the important functions of strength training has become the development of the muscle and tendon as a unit. The muscle-tendon unit attenuates and dissipates force. Developing a strong musculoskeletal system is what is needed to protect joints and reduce injuries. This attenuation and dissipation of force is not exclusive to particular joints in the anatomical system.
Dawn Comstock, associate professor of epidemiology at the Colorado School of Public Health, collected data on 6,704 student-athletes in six sports: boys' and girls' soccer, basketball and lacrosse. Her results indicated that for every pound of improved neck strength, an individual reduces his or her concussion risk.
Dr. Comstock from her years of injury surveillance points out the primary mechanism for concussion injury is athlete-to-athlete contact. The researcher then asked, "Did the athlete see the blow coming?" And she found that for the athletes who saw the blow coming – those who had a chance to activate their neck muscles – experienced less severe concussion.
The attenuation and dissipation of force and bracing before impact by activating neck muscles can lower subconcussive trauma. This is a great reason for training the musculature that moves the neck and supports the head.
There are many more reasons for an athlete to train this region of the anatomy. ‘Where the head goes the body will follow’ is an athletic axiom that coaches teach. Stand straight, place your fingers lightly on the nape of your neck. Without moving your head quickly move your eyes left and right. You will feel the musculature in your neck begin to contract. The eyes are not connected to the neck muscles but the brain is preparing the body for movement. Like our limbs it is important to move the head quickly. Training the head and neck will enhance performance.
The respiratory system’s process of inspiration and expiration involves much more than the diaphragm and the internal and external intercostal muscles. The scalene muscles in the neck are involved in almost every breath we take. The platysma and sternocleidomastoid are involved in heavy breathing. Injure or develop neck muscles and your body’s athleticism will be affected.
Conventional wisdom suggests that strength training increases body mass index (BMI) in a positive way, but does it? BMI is a simplistic measure of body fat. It is calculated by dividing one’s weight in kilograms by the square of one’s height in meters. The derived results can then be compared to a chart of normative data provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). BMI is useful for the overweight and obese, yet it does have limitations. BMI may overestimate body fat in athletes and others who have muscular builds. The problem is this simple tool does not differentiate between fat mass and lean body mass. It has long been argued that heavily muscled, weight-trained athletes are healthy despite their BMI classification.
At issue is the athlete that increases muscle mass and vascularity significantly in all areas of the body but the neck region alters peripheral vascular resistance in an acute way. Peripheral resistance is a function of the internal vessel diameter, vessel length and blood viscosity. Having a large body and an undeveloped neck changes the force of the delivery system’s blood flow to the head.
The cervical spine’s associated musculature is regarded as an important proprioceptive organ for postural processes. The muscles are small with a high spindle density. You can think of this region as the hotbed of proprioception. Disturbances of gait can occur by interfering with, damaging, weakening or fatiguing the muscles of the head and neck. Training this region augments static as well as dynamic posture – our ability to balance.
The head and neck muscular system is a complex anatomical structure and has apparent muscle redundancy; that is, more head and neck muscle than degrees of freedom. It is been postulated that individuals exhibit a large variation of neck muscle activation strategies for accomplishing the same task intra individually, as well as between subjects. The health practitioner’s return-to-play protocol after a concussion, whiplash, nerve or muscle trauma must contain a measurable strength component to restore each muscle to normalcy, redressing this tendency to substitute by the injured athlete.
Head and neck muscles can be thought of as two distinct muscular units, the musculature that moves the head and the muscles that move the cervical spine. Each unit must be trained to maximize development and ongoing strength values collected. This aids in overall muscular fitness and post injury assessment in returning a student-athlete to their appropriate functional movement.
Injuries to the mouth, face and jaw are part of sport. Having a strong jaw helps in bracing, clenching against a mouth guard, and resisting the pull of the chin strap in helmets. Injured masseter muscles, strained temporalis, pterygoids, digastrics all must be rehabilitated and strengthened when damaged.
To help lower subconcussive forces, protect the student-athlete returning to play, maximize performance and fitness, strength training of the head, neck and jaw must be inclusive when designing exercise programs.